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These images are for educational and informational viewing only. They may not be downloaded, re-used or licensed without specific permission from the archival institutions noted.

 
Red Line map

The famous Red Line Agreement, signed July 1928, created a closely held oil monopoly within the circumscribed area
BP Archive/BP plc

The red line drawn on this map is intended to follow the following lines:

A-B.- The frontier defined by the Treaty of Berlin of 13th July 1878 and by the Treaty of San Stefano of 3rd March 1878.

B-C.- The frontier demarcated by the Turco-Persian Frontier Commission in 1913-14 on the basis of the Protocol signed at Constantinople on the 4(17) November 1913 excepting in sectors a-b and c-d where the red line is intended to follow the line of the previous de facto frontier described on page 139 and 140 of the Minutes of the Frontier Commission in a note dated the 1/14th October 1914 by the Russian and British Commissioners.

C-D-E.- The limit of territorial waters of the Arabian peninsula excepting the Sultanate of Koweit and the Farsan Archipelago.

E-F.- The frontier defined by the Anglo-Turkish convention of 1st October 1906.

F-G.- The red line is intended to follow the decision of the Conference of London on the 13th February 1914 in execution of Article 5 of the Treaty of London of 17/30th May 1913 and Article 15 of the Treaty of Athens of the 1/14th November 1913.

G-H.- The frontier defined by the Treaty of Constantinople on the 16/29th September 1913.

H-A.- The limit of the territorial waters of Turkey in the Black Sea.
 
Cylinder seal Cuneiform prism
Akkadian cylinder seal; when rolled upon a surface, authenticated information about ownership; circa 2254-2193 B.C.E.
Oriental Institute Museum
Six-sided inscribed clay prism recording eight military campaigns of King Sennacherib; circa 689 B.C.E.
Oriental Institute Museum
 
Timur (Tamerlane) APOC's 1901 Concession
Artist's conception of Timur
Richard Hook
Anglo-Persian Oil Company's original 1901 concession
BP Archive/BP plc
 
Workman with kerosene tins on mule Aziz Khan guards
Native workman carrying cans of Anglo-Persian kerosene via mule, circa 1905-1910
BP Archive/BP plc
Tribal horsemen hired to protect Anglo-Persian oil wells in Persia, circa 1905
BP Archive/BP plc
 
Iraq's first oil gusher, Baba Gurgur, October 14, 1927
BP Archive/BP plc
River of oil from Baba Gurgur, October 14, 1927
BP Archive/BP plc
 
British Indian troops shell the Turks during Mesopotamia Campaign, circa 1916
Imperial War Museum
requires specific permission from archive
C. S. Gulbenkian's passport picture, circa 1933
C. S. Gulbenkian Foundation
requires specific permission from archive
 
C. S. Gulbenkian relaxing with kitten
C. S. Gulbenkian Foundation
requires specific permission from archive
Detail of a Standard Oil highway map in Nazi Germany featuring a gas station attendant giving a Hitler salute
Author's Acquisition
 
Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Muhammed Amin al-Husseini reviews Moslem Waffen-SS troops in Bosnia, as shown on a Nazi magazine cover, 1944
Author's Private Collection
Changing of the signs, December 1954
BP Archive/BP plc
 
Winston Churchill during his Admiralty years before World War I
Courtesy of Sir Martin Gilbert
King Faisal in London in 1933 shortly before his death
AP Worldwide Photos
requires specific permission from archive
 
Saddam Hussein, 1987
Jim Hollander, Reuters/Corbis
requires specific permission from archive
Iraqi Jewish refugees disembarking from plane in Israel during Operation Ezra and Nehemiah. Circa 1950-1951
Government of Israel Press Office Photo Archive
 
Iraqi Jewish refugees being airlifted to Israel
Government of Israel Press Office Photo Archive
Lt. Col. Hughes issuing mission orders to battalion leadership before entering Najaf, April 2003
Courtesy of LTC Christopher Hughes
 
Lt. Col. Chris Hughes outside Najaf, April 2003
Courtesy of LTC Christopher Hughes
Bravo Company, last inspection before movement to Najaf mosque to meet with Ayatollah Sistani
Courtesy of LTC Christopher Hughes
 

Copyright © 2004 – 2014 Edwin Black
All Rights Reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be used in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping or information storage and retrieval systems - without the written permission of the publisher.